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#mathew brady and the image of history
76historylover · 29 days ago
Idk if you’re interested but there’s this good book called “Mathew Brady and the Image of History” by Mary Panzer but it’s about Mathew Brady who was important in the creation of a Civil War photographic collection. If you’re also interested I suggest looking into Alexander Gardner and Timothy H. O’Sullivan because they were also important Civil War photographers!
Oooh, this piqued my interest. I always wanted to learn more about the photographers who captured the photographs. Thank you anon, I’ll look more into it!
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cerebralcentari · 6 months ago
Text
Chapters 9-10
Hi Tumblr,
While reading chapter 9, I quickly started to understand that this chapter would be the evolution of printing during the industrial revolution. This period was important because the advancement of technology throughout the world and in graphic design. 
The text accredit James Watt as an impactful person to graphic design because of his invention. This invention was the steam engine. Before this, the primary energy source were animals and human power. With this  came a shift in politics, desires to integrate with the urban population, the workforce, and a change dominion over nature and faith to science. The investment in technology during this time created new jobs and opportunities for graphic designers as the demand for services increased. the change into the Industrial Revolution  required a need to communication large amount of people at a faster pace. The demand for posters, large advertisements, new tactile and expressive characters increased. 
The Industrial Revolution impact on Graphic Design is as follows:
the invention of photography (I found this topic to be most interesting)
The methods of lithographic coloring
More evolution of typography including typographic sizes and letterform styles.
This chapter also touch on topics such as the importance of San Serifs text in the twentieth century. Some of the designers and the types of text they design is as follows:
Caslon-Doric (There goes one of his contributions but it may be different William Caslon)
Blake and Stephenson-Sans-surryphs
US-Boston type and Stereotype Foundry.
In 1828, the American wood-type had taken over. As all things in life, we are always on a search to improve. This improvement resulted in the use of lithographic printing. Though lithographic printing is considered an improvement, wood types continued to be produced until the 1900′s.
There was also a revolution in printing. The handpress became the printing press (see Stanhope below) and later a steam powered printing press (see Koenig below) (James Watt impact.). Koenig was hired by times in London to build two double cylinder steam powered presses. He successfully build the machines and November 29, 1814, it was announced that the Times were printed by steam. William Cowper improved printing again by using a curved stereotypes that are wrapped around the cylinder. Then Cowper and Ambrose Applegath said, “By their powers combined” they made the four-cylinder steam-powered press using curved stereotyped plates.
The advances of printing made it cheaper and efficient. The problem then became the need for paper to print. Nicolas Louis Robert, developed a papermaking machine 1798.
Typography
In 1886 typography had a change. The creation of the Linotype  arrived this year and take over. This impacted peoples lives because technology now alleviate the business of the need to pay for human power thus resulting in strikes and violence. This also reduced the cost of printing. Following the Linotype is the Monotype which allows kerning.
Photography
This is the best topic in this chapter. According to the text, the camera was known in the ancient world as early as the time of Aristotle. In 1665, a camera was developed but they were missing a light sensitive material (we know it as film). There was a “wet plate process” for obtain images that was developed by Frederick Archer. Archers process later have an impact on the world as we know it in graphic design.
THE INTRODUCTION TO THE KODAK CAMERA 
(I just wanted it to stand out.) Photography is absolutely perfect for documenting history (well it depends on who is telling the story). It was even useful for documenting the Civil War in the US. The development of motion picture photography came from Leland Stanford. This happened because Stanford became interested in photographing a horse’s stride to see if there’s a point of time where the horse’s feet aren’t on the ground. In 1877 and 1878, Stanford was able to develop motion picture photography and captured the image he was searching for with 24 cameras. 
Color
Color was an interesting topic primarily because highlights the Moorish culture. The introduction to Moorish ornaments came with the book Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Details of Alhambra as well as “The Grammar of Ornament”.
Lithography
This occurs when a stone can be used for printing with the use of oils. The first lithographic printing was done with the lithographic flatbed press and was later changed to the rotary lithographic press. Lithographic printing on tin became popular once it was developed. It became the standard for packages on food and tobacco products.
Continuing on to Chapter 10. I found it to be bad time for graphic design or a shift. We all know how painful change can be to a body of people. During the 19th century, there was a decline in book design and production. The book design resulted in the book design renaissance. This became a movement called “Art and Craft”. The most important person of this chapter seems to be William Morris. John Ruskin saw that there was a separation of Art and society after the Renaissance and this was because of industrialization and technology which would result in declines in creativity and designs being produced without a concern for appearance. With Ruskin idea in mind, Morris set out to combine industrialization with Art and Craft. 
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**First thoughts: 
It’ll be interesting to see how the Industrial Revolution impacted graphic design. 
Will I see more of an impact from women during this period? 
Why is William Caslon important to graphic design? (maybe I will find out later in reading)
Fat Face Typestyle (FFT): According to the text FFT is a Roman face whose contrast and weight have been increased by expanding the thickness of heavy strokes.
Why is William Morris important here?
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**Favorite people and contributions
Robert Thorne: Give a person their flowers while they’re here. Unfortunately the world was not able to do that  for Thorne because his work did not receive recognition until after he passed. William Thorowgood published Thorne’s 132 pg book of specimens that had been typeset. He was responsible for the fat face typestyle. 
William Thorowgood: At first I didn’t believe he deserved a mention because I thought his claim to fame was publishing Thornes work. He also copyright Clarendon, a similar version of Egyptian typography. 
Darius Wells: Invented wood types for display printing. The text states that these are durable, light, and less than half as expensive as large metal types. Durable, light, and cheap everything that most (co{crooked}ugh) cooperations love to hear. 
Charles Stanhope & Friedrich Koenig: These two are positioned together because one persons (Koenig) claim to fame is riding off of the others (Stanhope) work. (JK) Koenig just made Stanhope idea better. The following is a list of contributions to printing from Koenig:
Steam Press: Prints 400 sheets per hour;
Double Cylinder Steam Powered Press: 1,100 impressions per hour;
William Cowper: created printing press using curved stereotyped plates wrapped around the cylinder. According to the text, it produced 2,400 impressions per hour and 1,200 sheets on both sides. He also worked with Ambrose Applegath to combine Cowpers idea with  the ideas of Stanhope and Koenig. This resulted in the four-cylinder steam-powered press using curved stereotyped plates. It prints 4,000 shets per hour, on both sides.
Joseph Niepce: Produced the first photographic image. He discovered a way to capture images using a light sensitive asphalt (researched silver coated copper later).
Louis Jacques Daguerre: developed the daguerreotype prints and impressed others with ability to accurately capture an image. According to the text he used a silver plated copper sheet that was placed silver side down, and over a container of iodine crystals. The only limitations it had was that every image would be a one of a kind. It had a predetermined size and could glare after polishing. 
William Henry Fox Talbot: Published “The Pencil of Nature”, the first  book of 24 photographs. This book was illustrated completely with pictures. 
John Herschel named negatives and positives.
George Eastman: The man. responsible for creating the Kodak cameras we all used to love before camera phones arrived. He gave citizens the opportunity to capture moments and record of their own lives.
Freedmen on the Canal Bank at Richmond: The comparison of the two pictures from Mathew Brady and John Macdonald is absolutely stunning. The shadows and highlights. The details of facial expressions. the drawing looks as good as the photograph from an artist perspective. 
Mathew Brady: Was instrumental in the documentation of the Civil War. He was paid to capture images so the stories of war can be told by the authors of world history, the US Government. He was later hired by the government to document expeditions out west. 
Eadweard Muybridge’s The Horse in Motion, 1883: I love this because it I learned of the origins of motion picture.
Owen Jones the Grammar of Ornament color plate. I love looking at this. Looking at each color pattern creates a different feeling and the colors are perfectly balanced. The spaces between give your eyes the break it needs before moving on to the next pattern.
Louis Prang: Is known for a number of his works including scraps (album cards), Civil War Maps, and art repoduction. His work with Christmas cards is what I’m most impressed with. (even though I do not subscribe to the holiday.) The Valentine Card, 1883 was absolutely stunning. I would just want for him to have incorporated a more diverse group of cupids. 
Randolph Caldecott and Kate Greenaway: Both are designers that design for children or with children in mind. Caldecott had a way of creating worlds where faces are on plates and spoon like in the “Hey Diddle Diddle”. Greenaway created an experience use Victorian styling. She used soft colors, silhouettes, and white space creating a fantasy world.
Nast: was an artist that worked with Harpers Weekly. He was declared as the “best recruiting sergeant” by Ab Lincoln and have been said to have done as much as anyone to bring the conflict to a close by General Ulysses Grant. The reason he received this mention is because he took on corruption in the government with a political cartoon in Harpers Weekly in 1871 and 1872. The cartoon from 1871 shows a tiger attacking in the Roman Colosseum while the Roman emperor and his elected official witness the attack. In the political cartoon in 1872, you see a crowd of citizens hanging posters against corruption. He was later appointed as consul general to Ecuador and died six months later. (Call me a conspiracy theorist, but one doesn’t take on the government with that much traction and live much longer after.) 
William Morris- is a leader in the Arts and Crafts movement. Hes worked on designs for wallpapers, textiles, carpet, created typeface(s), and tapestries. He has collaborated on with influential designers and outstanding projects. He also inspired many of the designer within this chapter such as Arthur Mackmurdo, He has a ton of work that earns a mention in this blog. He has a mention however the reader will not learn of his work here. He earned his mention because of his influence. Morris taught that design could be presented to the working class but contradicts himself due to the fact that neither of the businesses he operate with produce anything for the working class.
John Ruskin believe that beautiful things are valuable and useful just because they are beautiful.
Detail of a Peacock Design and Wren’s City Churches. I love these two pieces of work. The color selection is perfect and it keeps my attention. The use of design to feel the page helped the title of Wren’s City Church stand out.  Both designs are trippy. 
Arthur Mackmurdo: designed the two pieces that I love above. He also had an interest in politics. He was the leader of Century Guild. The members of the guild included Selwyn Image and Herbert Horne. The group incorporated Renaissance and Japanese designs in their work. 
Hobby Horse: Designed in a collaborative effort between Horne and Image. It was the first work that introduced British Arts and Crafts to European audiences.
Selwyn Image: Worked on the Hoby Horse and also argues that every form of visual expression is art. Some of Image work includes designing typeface, illustrations, stained glass, and embroidery. 
Charles Ashbee: Architect, graphic designer, jeweler, and silversmith are some of the professions that Ashbee has. He was part of a guild called “Guild of Handicraft” (GOH). GOH developed a plan for the “School of Handicraft”. This school was an attempt to restore experience of apprenticeships. The problem is that the school was not able to secure funding from the state and eventually closed. the GOH leased Essex House and Ashbee wanted to transfer Morris’s estate over to Essex House after Morris death. The negotiation ended up with the equipment for purchase, hiring of key personnel, and the formation of Essex House Press. Ashbee was a follower of Ruskins and knew Ruskins beliefs. He later became a voice for integrating art and industry.
Altar Book: Not really a fan of the image that is displayed in the book but I love that the borders are really busy thus creating direction and emphasis on the text and picture. 
Edward Johnston: Master Calligrapher as well as a teacher and inspired by William Morris. He worked in medical (like me) and left that life to become a scribe.
Sjoerd H de Roos, Jav van Krimpen, and Charles Nypels: They too were impacted by the industrial revolution and did not think of it as a blessing because mass production. 
De Roos: Designed the book Kunst en maatschappij, which according to the text is a translation of a collection of essays by William Morris. He also designed the De Roos’s Hollandsche Mediaeval typeface. 
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