Production of Antibiotic Free Chicken and in-vivo & In-Vitro Evaluation of Atomes Novel Antibiotic Replacement Biotechnology, Novo Biotic ®, in Broiler Chicken Compared to Antibiotic Growth Promotors Avilamycin
A Patented Novel Antibiotic Replacement Technology (ART) Novo Biotic ® (Multi-Strain spores forming Bacillus FD 777) was validated in-vivo & In-Vitro based on its potentialities and capabilities of producing 15 complex of enzymes and more than 34 types of Lipopeptides (Bio-Antibiotics) in the production of broiler chicken. A total of 53’120 one-day-old ROSS 308-AP chicks were placed in 6 blocks and reared to 40 days. Control groups treated with Antibiotic Growth Promotor Avilamycin at 150g per Ton of feed, groups treated with Avilamycin at 150mg per ton of feed and Novo Biotic ® at 1L per 1000L of drinking water for 7 days and later 4 days per week till Day of Depletion (DOD between 38 and 40 days), and a group only treated with Novo Biotic ® at 1 L per 1000L of drinking water for 7 days and later 4 days per week till the DOD. The mean of the cumulative results of 1 to 40 days age revealed that birds treated with Novo Biotic ® with Avilamycin showed an FCR of 1.56 meanwhile the groups control treated only with AGP showed and FCR of 1.67. The treated group only with Novo Biotic ® showed an FCR at 1.53 compared to 1.67 of the control group. It’s clear that the AGP is affecting the performance of the Bacillus Strains in the Novo Biotic ®. With the best FCR 1.53 obtained with only Novo Biotic ® vs AGP alone 1.67, along with the In-Vitro studies against Salmonella, E. Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus with an inhibition zones between 25mm to 30mm, the Novel Novo Biotic ® is considered as an “ART” unique in its category, by preventing challenges and promoting an optimum Broiler performance.
Keywords: Novo biotic ®; FCR; EPEF; Antibiotic growth promoters (AGP); Probiotic; Elisa
Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been widely used to improve the performance of Broilers and the food conversion rates and they are well documented . Antimicrobials are given to broiler chicken to control diseases such as necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium species [2-6] in addition to Salmonella Species [7-9] and E. Coli, [10,11]. Antibiotics have started to fail. The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives [12,13]. Resistant bacteria already causing more than 750,000 deaths every year and scientists did not introduce any new molecule since 1987. 106 million new cases/year are being seen and the consequences of total resistance would be devastating. This number is predicted to rise dramatically if radical actions are not taken. More than 60% of the populations in some areas carry multidrug-resistant bacteria in their normal bacterial flora. 214,000 newborns are estimated to die every year from blood infections (sepsis) caused by resistant bacteria - representing at least 30% of all sepsis deaths in newborns [14-22].
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat and antimicrobial usage and AMR in animal production is one of its contributing sources [22,23]. Poultry is one of the most widespread types of meat consumed worldwide and are often raised under intensive conditions using large amounts of antimicrobials to prevent and to treat diseases, as well as for growth promotion . Researchers estimate that the global average annual consumption of antibiotics per kilogram of chicken produced is 148 mg/kg . Chicken harbors large proportion of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to aminosides in its digestive tract and tetracycline in its meat . Another Canadian study  highlights the existence of different stereotypes of Salmonella, isolated from broiler farms, resistant and multi-resistant to antibiotics. In addition, antibiotic resistance in Enterococci , Mycoplasma Gallisepticum  and Salmonella spp.  isolated in broilers have been reported.
AGPs have been banned in more than 30 countries worldwide, mainly due to concerns about human health and the emergence of superbugs, or bacteria resistant to multiple types of antibiotics. Thirty-five countries have a veterinary prescription requirement [3,4,19]. The European Commission (EC) decided to ultimately ban (January 1, 2006) all commonly feed antibiotics used as growth promoters (EC Regulation No. 1831/20031) [30,31]. Finding alternatives of AGP is now a viable solution to save the livestock sector. Probiotics have been proved to be the most preferred and effective alternative to antibiotics as a growth promoter and pathogens inhibitor in poultry industry [32-34]. In this study both In-Vitro and in-vivo evaluation of a Patented Biotechnology based product originated 100% from biofermenation, Novo Biotic ®, produced by Atomes FD. Inc. Canada was evaluated against an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) Avilamycin.
Novo Biotic ® is an innovation patented product that is used as 2 in 1 product:
1- Probiotic with a minimum of 1 billion CFU per ml of patented Bacillus FD777 multi-strains spore forming for its capability of producing more than 15 complexes of enzymes. Antibiotic Replacement Technology (ART) for its capability of producing more than 34+ types of bio antibiotics (Lipopeptides). All previous studies showed a complex of 34 Lipopeptides expressed genetically on the FD 777 strains such as: Macrolactin, Bacillomycin, Bacillaene, Fusaricidin, Difficidin, Bacitracin, Iturin, Tridecaptin, Bacilysin, Plipastatin, Surfactin, Teichuronic acid, Bacteriocin, Subtilin, Bacillibactin, Locillomycin, Kalimantacin, Myxovirescin, Plantathiazolicin, Citrulline, Plantazolicin, Bacitracin, Batumin, Nosperin and Fengycin (Table 1).
Materials & Methods
Novo Biotic ® Multi-strains FD 777 has the capability of producing 34 types of Lipopeptides which has a wide spectrum of killing effect on Salmonella, E. Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium, Staphylococcus aureus etc.
Below procedure describes the In-Vitro killing test of Novo Biotic ® against:
a) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC® 13076
b) mix of three Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895, ATCC 43889, ATCC 51658)
c) Staphylococcus aureus ED711
d) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA416A
i. 50 microliters of the above bacterial (Pathogen) were incubated overnight at 37oC in 20ml of Tryptic Soy Broth at 200rpm shaker.
ii. 100 microliters of the suspension were spread onto TSA plates, Trypticase Soy Broth with 1.5% Agar except for the staphylococcus which contains 0.25% Agar.
iii. 5 microliters of Novo Biotic ® (1/1000 dilution) were deposited on a disk on lawns of the above pathogens.
iv. Plates were incubated at 25oC for 48 hours.
v. The inhibition zones (Clear haloes) were measured in mm as below Figure 1. guideline.
One-Day-Old Ross 308 AP as hatched broiler chicks were delivered to the farm located in south of Lebanon during December 2019. All farms are semi-open system. The environmental conditions including temperature, humidity and ventilation of the farm were maintained and regulated according to the Aviagen breeder guidelines, by an automatic climate controller during the trial.
Feed Dietary and Treatment
A 3 phases feeding program was followed: starter (fed from day 0 to 14), grower (fed from 14 to 28), finisher (fed from 28 to 35).
The nutrient value of the feed given by the supplier is shown in Table 2.
Trial was conducted as per below design:
a) Block 1: 9500 Birds considered as control whereas Avilamycin is added 150g per DMton of feed. No Novo Biotic ® is added to drinking water.
b) Block 2: Replica of Block 1 with 9500 Birds. whereas Avilamycin is added 150g per DMton of feed. No Novo Biotic ® is added to drinking water.
c) Block 3: 8900 Birds whereas feed still containing Avilamycin 150g per DMton and added Novo Biotic ® to the drinking water at 1L per 1000L first 7 days and later 1L per 1000L of drinking water 4 days a week till DOD.
d) Block 4: Replica of Block 3 with 8160 Birds whereas feed still containing Avilamycin 150g per DMton and added Novo Biotic ® to the drinking water at 1 L per 1000 L first 7 days and later added 1 L per 1000 L of drinking water 4 days a week till DOD.
e) Block 5: 8900 Birds whereas Avilamycin stopped from the feed and only added Novo Biotic ® to the drinking water at 1L per 1000L first 7 days and later added 1L per 1000L of drinking water 4 days a week till DOD.
f) Block 6: Replica of Block 5 with 8160 Birds whereas Avilamycin stopped from the feed and only added Novo Biotic ® to the drinking water at 1L per 1000L first 7 days and later added 1L per 1000L of drinking water 4 days a week till DOD.
Table 3 clearly summarize the combination:
Vaccination was performed as per below table (Table 4).
Body Weight (BW) and Feed Intake (FI) were recorded weekly (day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and at DOD) as an average per Block. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) is the amount of feed ingested by an animal which can be converted into one kilo of live weight. The economic FCR is calculated as per below formula:
Body Weight is the weight of animals that can be accepted at the slaughterhouse. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) adjusted for mortalities was calculated for each Block. Mortality rate per treatment was calculated for the entire trial period. All results are calculated based on the average between block 1 and 2, block 3 & 4 and block 5 & 6. European Production Efficiency Factor also was calculated as per below formula:
5 Blood samples were taken from each group of blocks. With three groups total will be 15 samples per reading. Samples were tested (titers) for IBD (Infectious bursal disease), IBV (avian infectious bronchitis virus), NDV (Newcastle disease virus), AI (Avian Influenza) and MG/MS (Mycoplasma). Titers noted for days 0, Days 20 and Days 40.
Statistical analysis was performed using online statistical tools. The significance between treatments was determined by an analysis of variance with the general linear model. In all cases the level of statistical significance was P < 0.05 (Table 5).
Screening for Extracellular Enzymatic Activity of Novo Biotic ®
In order to quantify the International Units of the enzyme, thermofisher test kits were used.
Results & Discussion
In-Vitro Analysis Below figures describe the test results along with the inhibition zones. (Figures 2-4)
Table 6 shows all results calculated based on the average between block Group 1 (mean of Blocks 1 and 2), Group 2 (mean of Blocks 3 & 4) and Group 3 (mean of Blocks 5 & 6).
Tables 7-9 reveal all serological analysis at day old chicks, 20 days and 40 days, prior depletion.
Anova Results as below table
Table 10 summarizes the Anova analysis of the serological results performed on day 1 old chicks between group for every disease. Majority of the analysis showed no significant difference at P < 0.05 except for the:
a) Avian Influenza between the control group treated only with AGP and the group treated with AGP and Novo Biotic at 0.03 < 0.05
b) Mg/Ms titers between: firstly, the Groups the control treated with AGP and the one treated with AGP and Novo Biotic and secondly between the group treated with only Novo Biotic and the group treated with Novo Biotic and AGP at 0.02 < 0.05
In order to better interpret the results below charts reveals the titers of the 3 groups for every disease along with the disease evaluation (Figures 5-9). All flocks were being protected and uninfected for all the diseases as all titers are below the infection baseline.
Anova Results as below table
Table 11 summarizes the Anova analysis of the serological results performed on day 20 old chicks between group for every disease.
Majority of the analysis showed no significant difference at P < 0.05 except for the:
c) IBV between the control group treated only with AGP and the group treated with AGP and Novo Biotic at 0.03 < 0.05 d) Mg/Ms titers between the group treated with Novo Biotic alone and the group treated with Novo Biotic and AGP at 0.03 < 0.05
In order to better interpret the results below charts reveals the titers of the 3 groups for every disease along with the disease evaluation (Figures 10-14). All flocks were being protected and uninfected for all the diseases as all titers are below the infection baseline.
Table 12 summarizes the Anova analysis of the serological results performed on day 40 old chicks between group for every disease. Majority of the analysis showed no significant difference at P < 0.05 except for the:
e) NDV between the control group treated with AGP and Novo Biotic at 0.02 < 0.05
f) AI titers between the group control and the group treated with Novo Biotic + AGP at 0.00 < 0.05
g) Mg/Ms titers between the control group treated only with AGP and the group treated with AGP and Novo Biotic at 0.00 < 0.05 & between the group treated with Novo Biotic alone and the group treated with Novo Biotic + AGP at 0.00 < 0.05
In order to better interpret the results below charts reveals the titers of the 3 groups for every disease along with the disease evaluation (Figures 15-19). All flocks were being protected and uninfected for all the diseases as all titers are below the infection baseline. Although Anova results revealed some significant differences but all above serological titers show protection in some cases but uninfected flocks in all cases (Table 13).
Screening for Extracellular Enzymatic Activity of Novo Biotic ®
The bacterial strains of the Bacillus FD777 isolates, after 10 minutes of adding in the drinking water, presented extracellular enzymatic activity as below:
a) When adding Novo Biotic ® to AGP and comparing group 1 and 2 we can clearly see that FCR of group 2 (1.56) is way better than FCR of Group 1 (1.67). Novo Biotic ® promoted the development of positive bacterial flora in the digestive system of the chicken. The FD 777 Strains populations in the GIT are associated with enhanced animal performance, reflecting more efficient digestion and improved immunity. The FD 777 increased the digestion and absorption of nutrients essentially the amino acids due to high production of Protease also specially the amylase which also increase the body weight gain and improvement in feed use efficiency. Previous studies and analysis on Novo Biotic ® Studies show a complex of synergy between the activity of 15 complexes enzymes to include: Protease, metalloproteases, Amylase, Lipase, Esterase, urease, Xylanase, Cellulase and Phytase.
b) By removing the Avilamycin AGP and keeping Novo Biotic ®, we can clearly notice a better drop in the FCR between Group 2 (1.56) and Group 3 (1.52) and this is due the effect of the AGP on the Novo Biotic ® performance. Accordingly, always stop AGP from feed while using Novo Biotic ® to have the optimum performance of the FD 777 strains. Dropping the FCR from 1.67 to 1.53 and stopping the AGP has a substantial ROI (Return on Investment) to the client.
c) At 1 L per 1000 L of water as per above program, Novo Biotic ® completely replaces the Avilamycin AGP with better FCR (approx 14 points) accordingly the farmer can claim Antibiotic free chicken.
d) Due to 34 + Lipopeptides, Novo Biotic ® has the ability to complete inhibit and kill the pathogens such as E. Coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus with a minimum inhibition zone of 25 mm.
To Know More About Trends in Technical and Scientific Research Please click on:
To Know More About Open Access Journals Please click on:
Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment Market Size, Trends, Shares, Insights and Forecast – 2018-2026
Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment Market: Regional Dynamics
Regional segmentation of the global Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment Market by Coherent Market Insights comprises North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, and Africa. North America is expected to hold a dominant position in the global adrenocortical carcinoma treatment market over the forecast period, owing to rise in prevalence of the disease and presence of key players that are focusing on developing novel products, followed by Europe, the next dominating adrenocortical carcinoma treatment market. According to the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases Research, the incidence rate of adrenal cancer is about 600 new cases per year in the U.S. Moreover, organizations such as the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center are involved in stem cell research, to advance treatment in adrenal cancer.
Latin America is expected to gain significant traction in the forecast period, owing to higher incidence rate of the condition in Brazil. According to the survey ACC C.U.R.E. Organization, adrenal cancer in Brazil is 15 times more prevalent than any other countries in the world, attributed to high prevalence of mutation of a single gene TP53. Also, according to the Endocrine Society, 2014, the incidence during childhood is 2.9 to 4.2 per million per year in Brazil compared with an estimated incidence of 0.2 to 0.3 per million children per year worldwide. Moreover, the University of Michigan has been collaborating with the Adrenal Cancer Group in Sao Paulo to bring about the advancements in adrenal cancer research, thus providing better clinical outcomes for patients in the region.
* The sample copy includes: Report Summary, Table of Contents, Segmentation, Competitive Landscape, Report Structure, Methodology.
Request a sample copy of this report: https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-sample/1551
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare cancer affecting the outer layer of the adrenal glands, which are responsible for producing certain hormones and maintaining optimum blood pressure levels. Adrenocortical carcinoma is relatively frequent in children compared to other cancers, although the cancer may also affect adults. The most common symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma include abdominal pain, hypertension, weight gain, and frequent urination, which are mainly caused due to tumors causing excess secretion of hormones from the adrenal glands. Mitotane is the only drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicine Executive Agency (EMEA) for treatment of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. According to the study by HealthLine Media, 2017, about 5-10% of the adrenal tumors are malignant. Diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma is based on urine tests, dexamethasone suppression test for detecting abnormal levels of cortisol, which is the hormone released by the adrenal glands. Also, a wide number of imaging devices are used for diagnoses of the disease, which includes CT scan, MRI, PET scan, and MIBG Scan, thus aiding for faster disease identification that aids the doctors to decide for further treatments.
Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment Market: Market Dynamics
Increasing incidence of adrenocortical carcinoma associated with genetic disorders is a major factor augmenting growth of the adrenocortical carcinoma treatment market. According to the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2013, the peak incidence of adrenocortical carcinoma ranges between 40-50 years, where women are 55–60% more likely to get affected with a ratio of ratio 1.5:1. The study also states that adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy with an annual incidence of 0.05–0.2% or 1-2 cases per million population globally. Also, inherited disorders such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), and Carney complex are linked with increasing incidence of adrenocortical carcinoma. According to the survey by Endocrine Society, 2014, adrenocortical carcinoma comprises an approximate 3% to 10% of malignancies in LFS and over 5-15% of malignancies in BWS. Moreover, according to the study by Medscape, 2017, adrenocortical carcinoma accounted for 0.02-0.2% of all cancer-related deaths, globally.
Browse Research Report: https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/ongoing-insight/adrenocortical-carcinoma-treatment-market-1551
Moreover, number of clinical trials are increasing for different chemotherapeutics by various organizations and manufacturers. For instance, Millendo Therapeutics, Inc., initiated the Phase 1 trial for ATR-101 in 2013 to treat adrenocortical carcinoma. Also, the National Cancer Institute initiated a Phase 2 trial for Phase II trial of Cisplatin and sodium thiosulfate for surgical resection and Heated Intraperitoneal Peritoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) for adrenocortical carcinoma. Also, in March 2018, the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus presented new models to identify genetic targets and test promising treatments in adrenocortical carcinoma at the ENDO Conference, thus exploring new therapeutic options for the patients.
Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment Market: Competitive Analysis
Manufactures are focused on launching novel therapeutic products for treatment of these rare diseases, thus accelerating market growth. For instance, in 2017, the FDA approved immunotherapy drug Keytruda (Pembrolizumab), the first anti-PD-1 (programmed death receptor-1) therapy, developed by Merck & Co., indicated for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
Key players operating in the global adrenocortical carcinoma treatment market include ArQule, Inc., EnGeneIC Ltd., Exelixis, Inc., Merck & Co., Millendo Therapeutics, and Orphagen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Buy-Now this research report: https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/buy-now/1551
About Coherent Market Insights:
Coherent Market Insights is a prominent market research and consulting firm offering action-ready syndicated research reports, custom market analysis, consulting services, and competitive analysis through various recommendations related to emerging market trends, technologies, and potential absolute dollar opportunity.
Name: Mr. Shah
Coherent Market Insights 1001 4th Ave,
# 3200 Seattle, WA 98154, U.S.
US : +1-206-701-6702
UK : +44-020-8133-4027
JAPAN : +050-5539-1737
FSRU 2021: COVID-19 Impact Revenue Growth Predicted by 2025
The emerging business of LNG has been growing since a decade ago; now FSRUs are being used to transfer LNG from one place to another through oceans. The FSRU terminals take up LNG, regasify the LNG in gaesour form and further it can be usedas natural gas.. As per the estimation, the global FSRU market is expected to increase from 85 MTPA in 2018 to 230 MTPA in 2023 at a CAGR of approx. 13.88% which is due to the demand for natural gas is increased, development on port also increased.
Presently, FSRU market is gaining popularity because of cost effectivity, purpose, and demand. At the moment, major FSRUs present in the Middle East and Latin America. The market is looking for new investors and stakeholders to grow further. The market is dominated by few players only, but it has still potential to expand because most of the countries are updating their energy mix. Regionwise, Asia Pacific has more chances to develop strategies and market share in LNG market which ultimately help this segment to grow up in future.
The global FSRU market has been segmented by construction into newly built and converted. Based on storage, the market has been segmented into small, medium, and large FSRU, which is constructed and depends on the capacity and requirements of clients. By application, the market has been segmented into industrial, power generation, and others. Based on region, the market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, the Middle East & Africa, and Latin America. North America and the Middle East are expected to dominate the market as several new FSRU projects are currently being constructed in these regions.
Request sample report @
The global FSRU market is projected to witness ~ 18.88% CAGR during the forecast period.
Market Research Analysis
North American and Middle East regions are expected to command a major market share
North America has been seen tremendous growth of 2.5 MTPA in 2016 in terms of export. North America has new liquefaction projects coming up, with a capacity of approx. 665 MTPA, along with possessing operational, logistics, and technical capabilities to grow in this segment. the Middle East already has the maximum number of FSRU to export to other parts of the world.
Scope of the Report
This report provides an in-depth analysis of the global FSRU market, tracking four market segments across five geographic regions. The report studies key players, providing a five-year annual trend analysis that highlights market size, and share for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), Middle East, Africa and Rest of the World (ROW). The report also provides a forecast, focusing on the market opportunities for the next five years for each region. The scope of the study segments the FSRU market by construction type, storage, application, and by region.
By Construction Type
Middle East and Africa
The key players in the global FSRU market are are Excelerate Energy (U.S), Hoegh LNG (Bermuda), Golar LNG (Bermuda), BW gas (Norway), Gazprom FLEX LNG (U.K), Exmar (Belgium), Maran Gas Maritime Inc. (Greece), Offshore LNG Toscana SpA (Italy), Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (Japan) Bumi Armada (Malaysia), and Teekay Lng Partners, L.P. (Bermuda).
Access Report @
About Market Research Future:
Market Research Future (MRFR) is a global market research firm that takes great pleasure in its services, providing a detailed and reliable study of diverse industries and consumers worldwide. MRFR’s methodology integrates proprietary information with different data sources to provide the client with a comprehensive understanding of the current key trends, upcoming events, and the steps to be taken based on those aspects.
Our rapidly expanding market research company is assisted by a competent team of research analysts who provide useful analytics and data on technological and economic developments. Our deemed analysts make industrial visits and collect valuable information from influential market players. Our main goal is to keep our clients informed of new opportunities and challenges in various markets. We offer step-by-step assistance to our valued clients through strategic and consulting services to reach managerial and actionable decisions.
Market Research Future
Office No. 528, Amanora Chambers
Magarpatta Road, Hadapsar,
Pune – 411028
+1 646 845 9312