War of 1812 (History of the US Navy) 1955 USN Training Film FN-6943c
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Originally a public domain film from the National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
The War of 1812 (June 1812 – February 1815) was a conflict fought between the United States and its allies, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and its dependent colonies in North America and Native American allies. The conflict began when the United States declared war in June 1812, and ended in a restoration of the pre-war status quo when a peace treaty agreed to earlier was ratified by the United States in February 1815. Its consequences include establishment of a separate Canadian state, an end of hopes for an independent Native American confederation in the North West and paving the way for the western expansion of the US.
The controversies that led to war centered around the economic and trade disputes between America, Britain and France that resulted during the Napoleonic Wars, and therefore historical accounts on the causes, battles and outcome of this war can sometimes vary. A primary cause of the war was the Royal Navy stopping American ships on the open sea and seizing men they claimed to be either British-born or deserters from British vessels, even if they claimed to be American citizens. By some estimates, from 1793 and 1812 over 15,000 Americans were forced into British service in this way. In other accounts the British were concerned with keeping alliances with the American Indians alive while keeping their hold on Canada strong.
Given the wide spread British invasions, burning of American cities, including the capitol building, the blockade and the continued confiscation of American ships and cargo, Americans believe they soundly defeated a British attack on their sovereignty, Canadians that they repulsed ‘the massed might of the United States’, while the British consider it as a minor theater in the wider Napoleonic Wars...
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a national-level siege strategy, focusing on blockading ports and containing the US at its borders...
At sea, the powerful Royal Navy cut off trade and allowed the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, the British burned Washington (including the White House and the Capitol), but the Americans later repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions from the Canadas into the northern and mid-Atlantic states. In early 1815, after a peace treaty was signed, but before this news had reached the Americas, United States forces decisively defeated the attacking British Army near New Orleans, Louisiana, with an estimated casualty count of 2,000 to 60. This was viewed as restoring national honor, and catapulted American commanding General Andrew Jackson to national celebrity, culminating in his victory in the 1828 United States presidential election. In the related Creek War, General Jackson besieged the city of Pensacola - a Spanish Territory, West Florida, where a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. Spain eventually ceded control of Florida to the United States in 1819
Mounting opposition to the economic cost of the war meant British merchants lobbied for the resumption of trade with the United States. The abdication of Napoleon ended the British war with France and thus the need for impressment, removing a primary cause of the war. The British then increased the strength of their blockade of the United States coast, which had a crippling effect on the American economy. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, and the Treaty of Ghent was signed on 24 December 1814. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the United States Senate on 17 February 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes, except for some islands in Passamaquoddy Bay, an issue that was resolved after the war...