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#Divine Attributes
trinitiesblog · 20 days ago
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podcast 324 - Dr. Jc Beall - The Contradictory Christ - Part 1
https://trinities.org/blog/podcast-324-dr-jc-beall-the-contradictory-christ-part-1/
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a-godman · a month ago
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Christ as the Prototype is Reproduced in us to Live a God-man Life Expressing God
Christ as the Prototype is Reproduced in us to Live a God-man Life Expressing God
Hallelujah, Christ as the prototype is being reproduced in us, the believers in Christ, to live a God-man life expressing God in His divine attributes through our human virtues! What God desires in His intention with the creation of man is not a good man but a God-man; when Christ became a man in His incarnation, a God-man was produced, and in Him, the divine attributes were expressed through His…
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a-godman · a month ago
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God's Intention is for us to Become a God-Man, Expressing God in His Attributes
God’s Intention is for us to Become a God-Man, Expressing God in His Attributes
God’s intention with Job was that he would become a God-man, expressing God in His attributes, not that he would be a good man with his own integrity expressing himself. God’s intention in creating us in His image and according to His likeness is not that we would try to be like God (which was the serpent’s temptation to Eve) but that we would take God in as life, enjoy God as life, and live by…
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barkateraza · 2 months ago
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Beliefs Regarding Allah’s Divine Being & Divine Attributes
Beliefs Regarding Allah’s Divine Being & Divine Attributes
Beliefs Regarding Allah’s Divine Being & Divine Attributes   Belief: 1 Almighty Allah is ‘One’. He has no partners either in Being, Attributes, Actions, Commands or in Names. Almighty Allah is ‘Waajib ul Wajood’. In other words, His existence is necessary and His non-existence is Muhaal. Almighty Allah is Qadeem, in other words, He has always existed. Another name for this is also Azali, in other…
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a-godman · 3 months ago
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Christ expressed God's Attributes in His Human Virtues - the Living of Jesus is our Living
Christ expressed God’s Attributes in His Human Virtues – the Living of Jesus is our Living
As the one new man, we need to have a living that is exactly the same as the living of Jesus; we need to live a corporate God-man life, a life of expressing the attributes of God in the human virtues, a life of depending on God. For this, we need to be renewed in the spirit of our mind. In ourselves and by ourselves, even with all our desire to fulfil God’s purpose and obey the word of God, we…
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trinitiesblog · 3 months ago
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podcast 317 - Debate with Rogers - Does Mark teach that Jesus is God? - Part 1
https://trinities.org/blog/podcast-317-debate-with-rogers-does-mark-teach-that-jesus-is-god-part-1/
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trinitiesblog · 3 months ago
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podcast 316 - Review of Papandrea, Trinity 101: Father, Son, Holy Spirit
https://trinities.org/blog/podcast-316-review-of-papandrea-trinity-101-father-son-holy-spirit/
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trinitiesblog · 4 months ago
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podcast 313 - Weighing Channing Unitarianism
https://trinities.org/blog/podcast-313-weighing-channing-unitarianism/
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by Stephen J. Wellum | Did Jesus abandon his divine attributes when he became incarnate? Doesn’t Philippians 2 teach that Jesus emptied himself? Was the incarnation an act of subtraction or addition? How does the incarnation relate to the divine essence? Did the incarnation affect the trinity?
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tabernacleheart · 6 months ago
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[Jesus Christ] is not like the gods worshipped by many of the pagan, who were supposed to be so exalted, and so distant, that they did not interest themselves in human affairs; but He condescends to regard the needs of the meanest of His creatures. It is one of the glorious attributes of the true God, that He can and will thus notice the needs of the mean as well as the mighty; and one of the richest of all consolations when we are afflicted, and are despised by the world, is the thought that we are not forgotten by our heavenly Father. He who remembers the falling sparrow, and who hears the young ravens when they cry, will not be unmindful of us. 
Barnes' Notes on the Bible; Commentary on 1 Peter 5:7
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ibtedaa · 7 months ago
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ليس كمثله شيء.
کوئی چیز اس کی مثل نہیں
اس آیات قرآن مجید کو کئی بار سنا اور پڑھا البتہ کبھی اس پر غور نہیں کیا، مگر اب اچانک سے اس کے رونما ہونے پر ایک مدت سے جو سوال ذہن میں دوڑ رہا تھا تھا اس کا جواب مل گیا۔
جب ہم خدا کے بارے میں گور و فکر کرتے، تو اسے اپنے جیسا سمجھتے. اس کی محبت، غضب و رحمت اور تمام تر اوصاف کا اپنی فطرت، اپنی محبت، اپنے غضب اور اپنی رحم دلی سے موازنہ کرتے، بے شک بہت ہی لاشعوری طور پر فکر کرتے مگر نتیجہ یہی ہوتا۔
دیری سے صحیح مگر سمجھ آیا کی بیشک ہمیں خود کو اللہ کے اوصاف میں ڈھالنا چاہئے مگر ہمیں یہ بھی خیال رکھنا چاہیے کہ خداوند متعال ہم سے بہت الگ ہے، اس کا اور ہمارا کوئی مقابلہ نہیں, جو اس کی محبت ہے وہ الہی محبت ہے، جو اس کا غضب ہے وہ الہی غضب ہے۔ اور اس کے غضب و محبت کی وجوہات ہماری وجوہات سے بےحد جدا ہںں۔
ہمیشہ سوچا کہ چھوٹے چھوٹے گناہ جیسے نہ محرم سے بات کرنا، ان سے ہاتھ ملانا، یا ماں باپ کی نافرمانی کرنا، خداوندعالم نے ان گناہوں کے لئے اتنی شدید سزا کیوں رکھی؟
بے شک یہ قول معصوم(ع) ہے،
"سب سے عظیم گناہ وہ ہیں جنہیں ہم چھوٹا سمجھے"
یہ قول معصوم (ع) بھی کئی مرتبہ سماعت کر چکی ہوں،
"کہ یہ نہ سوچو کہ کوئی گناہ چھوٹا ہے مگر یہ سوچو کہ تم نے کس کی بارگاہ میں یہ گناہ بجا لایا ہے۔ "
البتہ موضوع یہ نہیں کی کونسا گناہ بڑا یا چھوٹا ہے مگر سوال ہے،
عذاب اتنے شدید کیوں ہیں؟
کبھی غور نہیں کیا کہ میری وجوہات، میرا نظریہ ان گناہوں کے لئے بہت ہی تنگ ہے۔ میں فقط ایک جاہل بشر ہوں جو عالم ملک کے باہر کچھ دیکھنے کی صلاحیت نہیں رکھتی، میں یہ نہیں دیکھ پاتی کہ صرف ایک ہاتھ ملانا میری روح کے لیے کتنا نقصاندہ اور جان لیوا ہو سکتا ہے۔
چنانچہ خدا کے غضب کی وجوہات کو اپنی وجوہات کے ساتھ ملانا چاہا اور اس کے اوصاف کو یوں پہچاننا چاہا کہ وہ انسانی اوصاف ھوں۔
بےشک کوئی چیز اس کی مثال نہیں، اور ہماری سوچ اسے پہچاننے سے قاصر ہے.
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tabernacleheart · 8 months ago
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Love is the most perfect manifestation of God. Yet God is in a sense beyond even love as we know it. For love, as we know it, implies the distinction between “me” and “thee,” and God is ultimately beyond such distinction.
Dionysius the Areopagite
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tabernacleheart · 8 months ago
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Beauty is a sacrament and only truly itself when it points to something beyond itself. That is why “Art for Art’s sake” degrades art. Beauty reveals God, but God is more than Beauty. Hence Beauty has its true being outside itself in Him.
Dionysius the Areopagite
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tabernacleheart · 8 months ago
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God is not a First Cause, for a cause is one event to a temporal series, and God is beyond Time and beyond the whole creation. Yet in so far as He acts on the relative plane He may, by virtue of this manifestation of Himself in the creation, be spoken of as a Cause.
Dionysius the Areopagite
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tabernacleheart · 8 months ago
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It is called the Trinity because Its supernatural fecundity is revealed in a Threefold Personality, wherefrom all Fatherhood in heaven and on earth exists and draws Its name. And It is called the Universal Cause since all things came into being through Its bounty, whence all being springs; and It is called Wise and Fair because all things which keep their own nature uncorrupted are full of all Divine harmony and holy Beauty; and especially It is called Benevolent because, in one of Its Persons, It verily and wholly shared in our human lot, calling unto Itself and uplifting the low estate of man, wherefrom, in an ineffable manner, the simple Being of Jesus assumed a compound state, and the Eternal hath taken a temporal existence, and He who supernaturally transcends all the order of all the natural world was born in our Human Nature without any change or confusion of His ultimate properties.
Dionysius the Areopagite
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Praise is not just a song about God; it is a song to God. Praising God has several aspects to it: (1) Say thank you to him for each attribute of his divine nature; (2) focus our hearts on him; (3) thank him for his many gracious gifts to us; and (4) thank him for our relationship with him.
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claudinei-de-jesus · 31 minutes ago
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God's attributes
Since God is an infinite being, it is impossible for any creature to know him exactly as he is. However, he kindly revealed himself through language understandable to us. It is the Scriptures that revelation. For example, God says about himself: "I am Holy"; therefore, we can affirm: God is Holy. Holiness, then, is an attribute of God, because holiness is a quality that we can attribute or apply to him. In this way, with the help of the revelation that God has given of himself, we can regulate our thoughts about God.
What is the difference between God's names and his attributes? God's names express the qualities of your entire being, while his attributes indicate various aspects of his character. Much can be said of a being as great as God, but we will facilitate our task if we classify his attributes. Understanding God in its fullness would be as difficult as closing the Atlantic Ocean in a cup; but he has revealed himself enough to exhaust our capacity.
The following classification may make it easier for us to understand:
1. Attributes unrelated to each other, that is, what God is in himself, apart from creation. These answer the question: what are the qualities that characterized God before anything existed?
2. Active attributes, that is, what God is in relation to the universe.
3. Moral attributes, that is, what God is in relation to the moral beings created by him.
1. Unrelated attributes (the intimate nature of God).
(a) Spirituality. God is Spirit. (John 4:24). God is a Spirit with personality; he thinks, feels and speaks; therefore, he can have direct fellowship with his creatures made in his image. Being a Spirit, God is not subject to the limitations to which human beings with physical bodies are subject. He has no bodily parts and is not subject to passions; his person is not composed of any material element, and is not subject to the conditions of natural existence.
Therefore, it cannot be seen with natural eyes or apprehended by natural senses. This does not imply that God leads a dark and unreal existence, as Jesus referred to the "form" of God. (John 5:37; see Phil. 2: 6.) God is a real Person, but of such an infinite nature that he cannot be fully grasped by human knowledge, nor can he satisfactorily be described in human language. "No one has ever seen God," declares the apostle John (John 1:18; see Ex. 33:20); however, in Exo. 24: 9,10 we read that Moses, and certain elders, "saw God".
There is no contradiction in this; John means that no man has ever seen God as he is. But we know that the Spirit can manifest itself in a corporeal form (Matt. 3:16); therefore, God can manifest Himself in a way that is perceptible to man. God also describes his infinite personality in language understandable to finite minds; therefore, the Bible speaks of God as a being with hands, arms, eyes and ears, and describes him as seeing, feeling, hearing, repenting, etc. But God is also unfathomable and inscrutable. "Perhaps ... will you reach the perfection of the Powerful Toddler?" (John 11: 7) - and our answer can only be: "we have nothing to take, and the well is deep" (John 4:11), using the expression of the Samaritan woman.
(b) Infinitude. God is Infinite, that is, he is not subject to natural and human limitations. His infinity is seen in two ways: (1) in relation to space. God is characterized by immensity (1 Kings 8:27); that is, the nature of Divinity is equally present in all infinite space and in all its parts. No existing part is separated from its presence or its energy, and no point in space escapes its influence. "Its center is everywhere and its circumference is nowhere." But, at the same time, we must not forget that there is a special place where its presence and glory are revealed in an extraordinary way; that place is heaven. (two)
In relation to time, God is eternal. (Ex. 15:18; Deut. 33:27; Nee. 5: 5; Ps. 90: 2; Jer. 10:10; Rev. 4: 8-10.) He has existed from eternity and will exist throughout eternity. The past, the present and the future are all like the present for the understanding of it. Being eternal, it is immutable - "the same yesterday, today, and forever". This is a comforting truth for the believer, thus being able to rest in the confidence that "The God of antiquity is a home, and underneath are the eternal arms" (Deut. 33:27).
(c) Unit. God is the only God. (Ex. 20: 3; Deut. 4: 35,39; 6: 4; 1 Sam. 2: 2; 2 Sam. 7:22; 1 Kings 8:60; 2 Kings 19:15; Nee. 9: 6 ; Isa. 44: 6-8; 1 Tim. 1:17.) "Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is the only Lord." This was one of the foundations of the Old Testament religion, and this was also the special message to a world that worshiped many false gods. Is there a contradiction between this teaching of the unity of God and the teaching of the New Testament Trinity?
It is necessary to distinguish between two qualities of unity - absolute unity and compound unity. The expression "a man" brings the idea of ​​absolute unity, because it refers to only one person. But when we read that man and woman will be "one flesh" (Gen. 2:24), this is a composite unit, since it refers to the union of two people. See also Esd. 3: 1; Ezeq. 37:17; these biblical references use the same word to mean "one" ("echad" in the Hebrew language) as used in Deut. 6: 4.
There is another word ("yachidh" in Hebrew) that is used to express the idea of ​​absolute unity. (Gen. 22: 2, 12; Amos 8:10; Jer. 6:26; Zec. 12:10; Prov. 4: 3; Jud. 11:34.) Which class of unity does Deut refer to? 6: 4? Because the word "our God" is in the plural (ELOHIM in Hebrew), we conclude that it refers to the composite unity. The doctrine of the Trinity teaches the unity of God as a composite unity, including three Divine Persons united in the essential eternal unity.
2. Active attributes (God and the universe).
(a) Omnipotence. God is omnipotent. (Gen. 1: 1; 17: 1; 18:14; Ex. 15: 7; Deut. 3:24; 32:39; 1 Chronicle 16:25; John 40: 2; Isa. 40: 12-15 ; Jer. 32:17; Ezek. 10: 5; Dan. 3: 17; 4: 35; Amos 4:13; 5: 8; Zec. 12: 1; Matt. 19:26; Rev. 15: 3; 19: 6.) God's omnipotence means two things:
1) Your freedom and power to do everything that is in harmony with his nature. "For with God nothing will be impossible." This of course does not mean that he can or wants to do anything contrary to his own nature - for example, lying or stealing; or that he would do something absurd or contradictory in himself, such as making a triangular circle, or making dry water.
2) Your control and wisdom over everything that exists or can exist. But if so, why is evil practiced in this world? It is because God has endowed man with free will, whose will God will not violate; therefore, he allows evil acts, but with a wise purpose to finally master all evil. Only God is almighty and even Satan can do nothing without his permission. (See Job chaps. 1 and 2.) All life is supported by God. (Heb. 1: 3; Acts 17:25, 28; Dan. 5:23.) Man's existence is like a harmonium note sound that sounds while the fingers press the keys. Thus, whenever a person sins, he is using the Creator's own power to outrage him. Every sin is an insult against God.
(b) Omnipresence. God is omnipresent, that is, material space does not limit him at any point. (Gen. 28:15, 16; Deut. 4:39; Jos. 2:11; Ps. 139: 7-10; Prov. 15: 3,11; Isa. 66: 1; Jer. 23: 23,24 ; Amos 9: 2-4,6; Acts 7: 48,49; Ephesians 1:23.) What is the difference between immensity and omnipresence? Immensity is the presence of God in relation to space, while omnipresence is his presence considered in relation to creatures. For its creatures it is present in the following ways:
1) In glory, for the worshiping hosts of heaven. (Isa. 6: 1-3.)
2) Effectively, in the natural order. (Nahum 1: 3.)
3) Providentially, in matters related to men. (Ps. 68: 7, 8.)
4) Attentively, to those who seek you. (Matt. 18:19, 20; Acts 17:27.)
5) Judicially, to the consciences of the wicked. (Gen. 3: 8; Ps. 68: 1, 2.) Man should not be deceived by the thought that there is a little corner in the universe where he can escape the law of his Creator. "If his God is everywhere, then he must also be in hell," said a Chinese man to a Christian in China. "Your anger at him is in hell," was the prompt reply.
6) Corporally in your Son. "God with us" (Col. 2: 9).
7) Mystically in the church. (Eph. 2: 12-22.)
8) Officially, with your workers. (Matt. 28:19, 20.) Although God is everywhere, he does not dwell everywhere. Only when entering into a personal relationship with a group or with an individual is it said that he lives with them.
(c) Omniscience. God is omniscient, because he knows all things. (Gen. 18: 18,19; 2 Kings 8: 10,13; 1 Chron. 28: 9; Ps. 94: 9; 139: 1-16; 147: 4-5; Prov. 15: 3; Isa. 29: 15,16; 40:28; Jer. 1: 4-5; Ezek. 11: 5; Dan. 2: 22,28; Amos 4:13; Luc. 16:15; Acts 15: 8, 18; Rom. 8:27, 29; 1 Cor. 3:20; 2 Tim. 2:19; Heb. 4:13; 1 Pet. 1: 2; 1 John 3:20.)
The knowledge of God is perfect, he does not need to reason, or research things, or learn gradually - his knowledge of the past, the present and the future is instantaneous. There is great comfort in considering this attribute. In all the trials of life the believer is sure that "your heavenly Father knows" (Matt. 6: 8).
The following difficulty presents itself to some: as God knows all things, he knows who will be lost; therefore, how can that person avoid being lost? But God's foreknowledge of a person's use of free will does not compel him to choose this or that destination. God predicts without intervening.
(d) Wisdom. God is wise. (Ps. 104: 24; Prov. 3:19; Jer. 10:12; Dan. 2: 20,21; Rom. 11:33; 1 Cor. 1:24, 25, 30; 2: 6, 7; Ephesians 3:10; Col. 2: 2, 3.) God's wisdom brings together his omniscience and his omnipotence. He has the power to carry out his knowledge in such a way that the best possible purposes are realized by the best possible means. God always does good in the right way and at the right time. "He did everything well." This action on the part of God, of organizing all things and carrying out his will in the course of events for the purpose of accomplishing his good purpose, is called Providence. Divine general providence relates to the universe as a whole; his particular providence relates to the details of man's life.
(e) Sovereignty. God is sovereign, that is, he has the absolute right to govern his creatures and to dispose of them as he pleases. (Dan. 4:35; Matt. 20:15; Rom. 9:21.) He has this right by virtue of his infinite superiority, his absolute possession of all things, and his absolute dependence on them before him to continue to exist. In this way, it is both folly and transgression to censor his ways. D. S. Clarke observes: The doctrine of God's sovereignty is a very useful and encouraging doctrine. If it were to choose, which would be preferable - to be governed by blind fatalism, by capricious luck, by irrevocable natural law, by the perverted and short-sighted "I", or to be governed by a wise, holy, loving and powerful God? Whoever rejects the sovereignty of God, can choose to be governed from what is left.
3. Moral attributes (God and moral creatures).
By reviewing the record of God's works for men, we learn that:
(a) Holiness. God is saint. (Ex. 15:11; Lev. 11:44, 45; 20:26; Jos. 24:19; 1 Sam. 2: 2; Ps. 5: 4; 111: 9; 145: 17; Isa. 6: 3; 43: 14,15; Jer. 23: 9; Luc. 1:49; Aunt. 1:13; 1 Pet. 1:15, 16; Rev. 4: 8; 15: 3, 4.) Holiness of God means his absolute moral purity; he cannot sin or tolerate sin. The original meaning of the word "saint" is "separate". In what sense is God separated? He is separated from man in space - he is in heaven, man on earth. He is separate from man in nature and character - he is perfect, man is imperfect; he is divine, man is human; he is morally perfect, man is sinful. We see, then, that holiness is the attribute that maintains the distinction between God and the creature. it not only denotes an attribute of God, but the divine nature itself. Therefore, when God reveals himself in order to impress man with his Divinity, he is said to have sanctified himself (Ezek. 36:23; 38:23), that is, "he reveals himself as the Saint ". When the seraphim describe the divine radiance emanating from the one sitting on the throne, they exclaim, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts" (Isa. 6: 3). It is said that men sanctify God when they honor and revere him as Divine. (Num. 20:12; Lev. 10: 3; Isa. 8:13.) When they dishonor him, for violating his commandments, they say that they "profane" his name - which is the opposite of sanctifying his name. (Matt. 6: 9.) Only God is holy in himself. The people, buildings, and holy objects are described in this way because God has made them holy and has sanctified them. The word "holy", when applied to people or objects, is a term that expresses a relationship with Jehovah - because it is set apart for his service. Being separate, objects need to be clean; and people must consecrate themselves and live according to the law of holiness. These facts form the basis of the doctrine of sanctification.
(b) Justice. God is fair. What is the difference between holiness and justice? "Justice is holiness in action", this is one of the answers. Justice is the holiness of God manifested in dealing righteously with his creatures. "will not the Judge of all the land do justice?" (Gen. 18:25). Justice is obedience to a right norm; it is right conduct in relation to others. When does God manifest this attribute?
1) When he delivers the innocent, he condemns the wicked and demands that justice be done. God judges, not as modern judges do, who base their judgment on the evidence presented before them by others. God Himself finds the evidence. In this way, the Messiah, filled with the Divine Spirit, will not judge "according to the sight of his eyes, nor will he reprove according to the hearing of his ears", but he will judge justly. (Isa. 11: 3.)
2) When he forgives the penitent. (Ps. 51:14; 1 John 1: 9; Heb. 6:10.)
3) When you punish and judge your people. (Isa. 8:17; Amos 3: 2.)
4) When he saves his people. God's interposition on behalf of his people is called his justice. (Isa. 46:13; 45: 24,25.) Salvation is the negative side, justice is the positive. He delivers his people from their sins and from their enemies, and the result is righteousness of heart. (Isa. 51: 6; 54:13; 60:21; 61:10.)
5) When he gives victory to the cause of his faithful servants. (Isa. 50: 4- 9.) After God has set his people free and judged the wicked, then we will have "new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells" (2 Peter 3:13). Not only does God deal justly, he also requires justice. But what will happen if man has sinned? So he graciously justifies the penitent. (Rom. 4: 5.) This is the basis of the doctrine of justification. It will be noted that the divine nature is the basis of God's relations with men. As it is, so it operates. The Holy sanctifies, the Justified justifies.
[c) Loyalty. God is Faithful. He is absolutely trustworthy; his words will not fail. Therefore, his people can rest on their promises. (Ex. 34: 6; Num. 23:19; Deut. 4:31; Jos. 21: 43-45; 23:14; 1 Sam. 15:29; Jer. 4:28; Isa. 25: 1; Ezek. 12:25; Dan. 9: 4; Mic. 7:20; Luc. 18: 7,8; ​​Rom. 3: 4; 15: 8; 1 Cor. 1: 9; 10:13; 2 Cor. 1:20; 1 Thess. 5:24; 2 Thess. 3: 3; 2 Tim. 2:13; Heb. 6:18; 10:23; 1 Pet. 4:19; Rev. 15: 3.)
(d) Mercy. God is merciful. "God's mercy is divine goodness at work with respect to the miseries of his creatures, goodness that is moved in their behalf, providing their relief, and, in the case of unrepentant sinners, showing long-suffering patience" (Hodges). (Titus 3: 5; Lam. 3:22; Dan. 9: 9; Jer. 3:12; Ps. 32: 5; Isa. 49:13; 54: 7.) One of the most beautiful descriptions of God's mercy is found in Psalm 103: 8-18. His knowledge of mercy becomes the basis of hope (Ps. 130: 7) as well as trust (Ps. 52: 8). God's mercy was eloquently manifested in sending Christ into the world. (Luke 1:78.)
(e) Love. God is love. Love is the attribute of God by virtue of which he desires a personal relationship with those who have his image and, most especially, with those who have been sanctified in character, deeds similar to him. We note the description of God's love (Deut. 7: 8; Eph. 2: 4; Pt. 3:17; Isa. 49:15, 16; Rom. 8:39; Hos. 11: 4; Jer. 31: 3); we notice to whom it is manifested (John 3:16; 16:27; 17:23; Deut. 10:18); we notice how it was demonstrated (John 3:16; 1 John 3: 1; 4: 9, 10; Rom. 9: 11-13; Isa. 38:17; 43: 3, 4; 63: 9; Titus 3: 4 -7; Ephesians 2: 4, 5; Hos. 11: 4; Deut. 7:13; Rom. 5: 5).
(f) Kindness. God is good. God's goodness is the attribute by which he bestows life and other blessings on his creatures. (Ps. 25: 8; Nahum 1: 7; Ps. 145: 9; Rom. 2: 4; Matt. 5:45; Ps. 31:19; Acts 14:17; Ps. 68:10; 85: 5 .) Dr. Howard Agnew Johnson writes: Some years ago I was invited to lunch in a certain house.
The owner of the house asked me to pray. After asking for the blessing and expressing our gratitude for the gifts of God, he said with some frankness: "I really do not see the reason for this: for I have provided this meal myself." In response, we asked: "Did you never think that if the sowing and harvesting failed once in the whole land, half the people would die before the next harvest? And did you not also think that sowing and harvesting would fail in two years? successive across the planet, would all men die before the next harvest?
Evidently haunted, he admitted that he had never thought of such a possibility. So we suggested that he was very wrong to say that he was the one who provided that meal for us. He owed God his own life and the strength to earn money. God had given life to the grain and animal that we used as food, which he could never do. We remind him that he had been a co-worker with God, participating in divine laws to supply our needs. So we asked: "If someone gave you something, wouldn't you say" thank you "? And if the gifts were repeated two or three times a day, wouldn't you say" thank you "each time '?
With that he readily agreed. "So you understand why we say 'thank you' to God each time we receive his blessings." To this he exclaimed: "Ah! This is nothing more than good manners, not to mention being intelligently grateful!" For some people, the existence of evil and suffering presents an obstacle to the belief in the goodness of God. "Why did a God of love create a world full of suffering?" some ask. The following considerations may clarify the problem:
1) God is not responsible for evil. If a careless worker throws sand at a delicate machine, should the manufacturer be held responsible? God did everything good, but man damaged his work. Virtually all the suffering in the world is a consequence of man's deliberate disobedience.
2) Since God is Almighty, evil exists by his permission. We cannot always understand why he allows evil, because his ways are inscrutable. To the extremely curious he would say: "What do you have with that?
You follow me. "However, we can understand part of his ways - enough to know that he doesn't make a mistake. So wrote Stevenson, a notable author:" If I can see through my tiny myopic eyes with my tiny myopic eyes fraction of the universe, and still receive in my own destiny some evidence of a plan and some evidence of a dominant goodness, would I then be so foolish as to complain that I cannot understand everything? shouldn't I feel infinite and grateful surprise that, in a vast enterprise, I can understand something, however small it may be, and make this little one inspire my faith? "
3) God is so great that he can make evil cooperate for good. Let us remember how the evil of the brothers of Joseph, and of Pharaoh, and of Herod, and of those who rejected and crucified Christ, dominated. An ancient scholar rightly said: "Almighty God would in no way permit the existence of evil in his work if he were not so omnipotent and so good that even from evil he could do good." Many Christians have already emerged from the fires of suffering with a purified character and strengthened faith. Suffering has driven them into the bosom of God. Suffering was the currency that bought the character proved in the fire.
4) God formed the universe according to natural laws, and these laws imply the possibility of accidents. For example, if a person carelessly or deliberately falls over a precipice, that person will suffer the consequences of having violated the law of gravity. But, at the same time, we are satisfied with these laws, because otherwise the world would be in a state of confusion.
5) it is good to always remember that this is not the perfect state of affairs. God has in store another life and a future time when he will show the reason for all his treaties and actions. Since he operates according to "Celestial Official Time", we sometimes think he is late, but "very quickly" will do justice to his chosen ones. (Luke 18: 7, 8.) God is not to be judged until the curtain is drawn over the last scene of the great Drama of the Ages. Then we will see that "He did everything well"
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claudinei-de-jesus · 32 minutes ago
Text
God's attributes
Since God is an infinite being, it is impossible for any creature to know him exactly as he is. However, he kindly revealed himself through language understandable to us. It is the Scriptures that revelation. For example, God says about himself: "I am Holy"; therefore, we can affirm: God is Holy. Holiness, then, is an attribute of God, because holiness is a quality that we can attribute or apply to him. In this way, with the help of the revelation that God has given of himself, we can regulate our thoughts about God.
What is the difference between God's names and his attributes? God's names express the qualities of your entire being, while his attributes indicate various aspects of his character. Much can be said of a being as great as God, but we will facilitate our task if we classify his attributes. Understanding God in its fullness would be as difficult as closing the Atlantic Ocean in a cup; but he has revealed himself enough to exhaust our capacity.
The following classification may make it easier for us to understand:
1. Attributes unrelated to each other, that is, what God is in himself, apart from creation. These answer the question: what are the qualities that characterized God before anything existed?
2. Active attributes, that is, what God is in relation to the universe.
3. Moral attributes, that is, what God is in relation to the moral beings created by him.
1. Unrelated attributes (the intimate nature of God).
(a) Spirituality. God is Spirit. (John 4:24). God is a Spirit with personality; he thinks, feels and speaks; therefore, he can have direct fellowship with his creatures made in his image. Being a Spirit, God is not subject to the limitations to which human beings with physical bodies are subject. He has no bodily parts and is not subject to passions; his person is not composed of any material element, and is not subject to the conditions of natural existence.
Therefore, it cannot be seen with natural eyes or apprehended by natural senses. This does not imply that God leads a dark and unreal existence, as Jesus referred to the "form" of God. (John 5:37; see Phil. 2: 6.) God is a real Person, but of such an infinite nature that he cannot be fully grasped by human knowledge, nor can he satisfactorily be described in human language. "No one has ever seen God," declares the apostle John (John 1:18; see Ex. 33:20); however, in Exo. 24: 9,10 we read that Moses, and certain elders, "saw God".
There is no contradiction in this; John means that no man has ever seen God as he is. But we know that the Spirit can manifest itself in a corporeal form (Matt. 3:16); therefore, God can manifest Himself in a way that is perceptible to man. God also describes his infinite personality in language understandable to finite minds; therefore, the Bible speaks of God as a being with hands, arms, eyes and ears, and describes him as seeing, feeling, hearing, repenting, etc. But God is also unfathomable and inscrutable. "Perhaps ... will you reach the perfection of the Powerful Toddler?" (John 11: 7) - and our answer can only be: "we have nothing to take, and the well is deep" (John 4:11), using the expression of the Samaritan woman.
(b) Infinitude. God is Infinite, that is, he is not subject to natural and human limitations. His infinity is seen in two ways: (1) in relation to space. God is characterized by immensity (1 Kings 8:27); that is, the nature of Divinity is equally present in all infinite space and in all its parts. No existing part is separated from its presence or its energy, and no point in space escapes its influence. "Its center is everywhere and its circumference is nowhere." But, at the same time, we must not forget that there is a special place where its presence and glory are revealed in an extraordinary way; that place is heaven. (two)
In relation to time, God is eternal. (Ex. 15:18; Deut. 33:27; Nee. 5: 5; Ps. 90: 2; Jer. 10:10; Rev. 4: 8-10.) He has existed from eternity and will exist throughout eternity. The past, the present and the future are all like the present for the understanding of it. Being eternal, it is immutable - "the same yesterday, today, and forever". This is a comforting truth for the believer, thus being able to rest in the confidence that "The God of antiquity is a home, and underneath are the eternal arms" (Deut. 33:27).
(c) Unit. God is the only God. (Ex. 20: 3; Deut. 4: 35,39; 6: 4; 1 Sam. 2: 2; 2 Sam. 7:22; 1 Kings 8:60; 2 Kings 19:15; Nee. 9: 6 ; Isa. 44: 6-8; 1 Tim. 1:17.) "Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is the only Lord." This was one of the foundations of the Old Testament religion, and this was also the special message to a world that worshiped many false gods. Is there a contradiction between this teaching of the unity of God and the teaching of the New Testament Trinity?
It is necessary to distinguish between two qualities of unity - absolute unity and compound unity. The expression "a man" brings the idea of ​​absolute unity, because it refers to only one person. But when we read that man and woman will be "one flesh" (Gen. 2:24), this is a composite unit, since it refers to the union of two people. See also Esd. 3: 1; Ezeq. 37:17; these biblical references use the same word to mean "one" ("echad" in the Hebrew language) as used in Deut. 6: 4.
There is another word ("yachidh" in Hebrew) that is used to express the idea of ​​absolute unity. (Gen. 22: 2, 12; Amos 8:10; Jer. 6:26; Zec. 12:10; Prov. 4: 3; Jud. 11:34.) Which class of unity does Deut refer to? 6: 4? Because the word "our God" is in the plural (ELOHIM in Hebrew), we conclude that it refers to the composite unity. The doctrine of the Trinity teaches the unity of God as a composite unity, including three Divine Persons united in the essential eternal unity.
2. Active attributes (God and the universe).
(a) Omnipotence. God is omnipotent. (Gen. 1: 1; 17: 1; 18:14; Ex. 15: 7; Deut. 3:24; 32:39; 1 Chronicle 16:25; John 40: 2; Isa. 40: 12-15 ; Jer. 32:17; Ezek. 10: 5; Dan. 3: 17; 4: 35; Amos 4:13; 5: 8; Zec. 12: 1; Matt. 19:26; Rev. 15: 3; 19: 6.) God's omnipotence means two things:
1) Your freedom and power to do everything that is in harmony with his nature. "For with God nothing will be impossible." This of course does not mean that he can or wants to do anything contrary to his own nature - for example, lying or stealing; or that he would do something absurd or contradictory in himself, such as making a triangular circle, or making dry water.
2) Your control and wisdom over everything that exists or can exist. But if so, why is evil practiced in this world? It is because God has endowed man with free will, whose will God will not violate; therefore, he allows evil acts, but with a wise purpose to finally master all evil. Only God is almighty and even Satan can do nothing without his permission. (See Job chaps. 1 and 2.) All life is supported by God. (Heb. 1: 3; Acts 17:25, 28; Dan. 5:23.) Man's existence is like a harmonium note sound that sounds while the fingers press the keys. Thus, whenever a person sins, he is using the Creator's own power to outrage him. Every sin is an insult against God.
(b) Omnipresence. God is omnipresent, that is, material space does not limit him at any point. (Gen. 28:15, 16; Deut. 4:39; Jos. 2:11; Ps. 139: 7-10; Prov. 15: 3,11; Isa. 66: 1; Jer. 23: 23,24 ; Amos 9: 2-4,6; Acts 7: 48,49; Ephesians 1:23.) What is the difference between immensity and omnipresence? Immensity is the presence of God in relation to space, while omnipresence is his presence considered in relation to creatures. For its creatures it is present in the following ways:
1) In glory, for the worshiping hosts of heaven. (Isa. 6: 1-3.)
2) Effectively, in the natural order. (Nahum 1: 3.)
3) Providentially, in matters related to men. (Ps. 68: 7, 8.)
4) Attentively, to those who seek you. (Matt. 18:19, 20; Acts 17:27.)
5) Judicially, to the consciences of the wicked. (Gen. 3: 8; Ps. 68: 1, 2.) Man should not be deceived by the thought that there is a little corner in the universe where he can escape the law of his Creator. "If his God is everywhere, then he must also be in hell," said a Chinese man to a Christian in China. "Your anger at him is in hell," was the prompt reply.
6) Corporally in your Son. "God with us" (Col. 2: 9).
7) Mystically in the church. (Eph. 2: 12-22.)
8) Officially, with your workers. (Matt. 28:19, 20.) Although God is everywhere, he does not dwell everywhere. Only when entering into a personal relationship with a group or with an individual is it said that he lives with them.
(c) Omniscience. God is omniscient, because he knows all things. (Gen. 18: 18,19; 2 Kings 8: 10,13; 1 Chron. 28: 9; Ps. 94: 9; 139: 1-16; 147: 4-5; Prov. 15: 3; Isa. 29: 15,16; 40:28; Jer. 1: 4-5; Ezek. 11: 5; Dan. 2: 22,28; Amos 4:13; Luc. 16:15; Acts 15: 8, 18; Rom. 8:27, 29; 1 Cor. 3:20; 2 Tim. 2:19; Heb. 4:13; 1 Pet. 1: 2; 1 John 3:20.)
The knowledge of God is perfect, he does not need to reason, or research things, or learn gradually - his knowledge of the past, the present and the future is instantaneous. There is great comfort in considering this attribute. In all the trials of life the believer is sure that "your heavenly Father knows" (Matt. 6: 8).
The following difficulty presents itself to some: as God knows all things, he knows who will be lost; therefore, how can that person avoid being lost? But God's foreknowledge of a person's use of free will does not compel him to choose this or that destination. God predicts without intervening.
(d) Wisdom. God is wise. (Ps. 104: 24; Prov. 3:19; Jer. 10:12; Dan. 2: 20,21; Rom. 11:33; 1 Cor. 1:24, 25, 30; 2: 6, 7; Ephesians 3:10; Col. 2: 2, 3.) God's wisdom brings together his omniscience and his omnipotence. He has the power to carry out his knowledge in such a way that the best possible purposes are realized by the best possible means. God always does good in the right way and at the right time. "He did everything well." This action on the part of God, of organizing all things and carrying out his will in the course of events for the purpose of accomplishing his good purpose, is called Providence. Divine general providence relates to the universe as a whole; his particular providence relates to the details of man's life.
(e) Sovereignty. God is sovereign, that is, he has the absolute right to govern his creatures and to dispose of them as he pleases. (Dan. 4:35; Matt. 20:15; Rom. 9:21.) He has this right by virtue of his infinite superiority, his absolute possession of all things, and his absolute dependence on them before him to continue to exist. In this way, it is both folly and transgression to censor his ways. D. S. Clarke observes: The doctrine of God's sovereignty is a very useful and encouraging doctrine. If it were to choose, which would be preferable - to be governed by blind fatalism, by capricious luck, by irrevocable natural law, by the perverted and short-sighted "I", or to be governed by a wise, holy, loving and powerful God? Whoever rejects the sovereignty of God, can choose to be governed from what is left.
3. Moral attributes (God and moral creatures).
By reviewing the record of God's works for men, we learn that:
(a) Holiness. God is saint. (Ex. 15:11; Lev. 11:44, 45; 20:26; Jos. 24:19; 1 Sam. 2: 2; Ps. 5: 4; 111: 9; 145: 17; Isa. 6: 3; 43: 14,15; Jer. 23: 9; Luc. 1:49; Aunt. 1:13; 1 Pet. 1:15, 16; Rev. 4: 8; 15: 3, 4.) Holiness of God means his absolute moral purity; he cannot sin or tolerate sin. The original meaning of the word "saint" is "separate". In what sense is God separated? He is separated from man in space - he is in heaven, man on earth. He is separate from man in nature and character - he is perfect, man is imperfect; he is divine, man is human; he is morally perfect, man is sinful. We see, then, that holiness is the attribute that maintains the distinction between God and the creature. it not only denotes an attribute of God, but the divine nature itself. Therefore, when God reveals himself in order to impress man with his Divinity, he is said to have sanctified himself (Ezek. 36:23; 38:23), that is, "he reveals himself as the Saint ". When the seraphim describe the divine radiance emanating from the one sitting on the throne, they exclaim, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts" (Isa. 6: 3). It is said that men sanctify God when they honor and revere him as Divine. (Num. 20:12; Lev. 10: 3; Isa. 8:13.) When they dishonor him, for violating his commandments, they say that they "profane" his name - which is the opposite of sanctifying his name. (Matt. 6: 9.) Only God is holy in himself. The people, buildings, and holy objects are described in this way because God has made them holy and has sanctified them. The word "holy", when applied to people or objects, is a term that expresses a relationship with Jehovah - because it is set apart for his service. Being separate, objects need to be clean; and people must consecrate themselves and live according to the law of holiness. These facts form the basis of the doctrine of sanctification.
(b) Justice. God is fair. What is the difference between holiness and justice? "Justice is holiness in action", this is one of the answers. Justice is the holiness of God manifested in dealing righteously with his creatures. "will not the Judge of all the land do justice?" (Gen. 18:25). Justice is obedience to a right norm; it is right conduct in relation to others. When does God manifest this attribute?
1) When he delivers the innocent, he condemns the wicked and demands that justice be done. God judges, not as modern judges do, who base their judgment on the evidence presented before them by others. God Himself finds the evidence. In this way, the Messiah, filled with the Divine Spirit, will not judge "according to the sight of his eyes, nor will he reprove according to the hearing of his ears", but he will judge justly. (Isa. 11: 3.)
2) When he forgives the penitent. (Ps. 51:14; 1 John 1: 9; Heb. 6:10.)
3) When you punish and judge your people. (Isa. 8:17; Amos 3: 2.)
4) When he saves his people. God's interposition on behalf of his people is called his justice. (Isa. 46:13; 45: 24,25.) Salvation is the negative side, justice is the positive. He delivers his people from their sins and from their enemies, and the result is righteousness of heart. (Isa. 51: 6; 54:13; 60:21; 61:10.)
5) When he gives victory to the cause of his faithful servants. (Isa. 50: 4- 9.) After God has set his people free and judged the wicked, then we will have "new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells" (2 Peter 3:13). Not only does God deal justly, he also requires justice. But what will happen if man has sinned? So he graciously justifies the penitent. (Rom. 4: 5.) This is the basis of the doctrine of justification. It will be noted that the divine nature is the basis of God's relations with men. As it is, so it operates. The Holy sanctifies, the Justified justifies.
[c) Loyalty. God is Faithful. He is absolutely trustworthy; his words will not fail. Therefore, his people can rest on their promises. (Ex. 34: 6; Num. 23:19; Deut. 4:31; Jos. 21: 43-45; 23:14; 1 Sam. 15:29; Jer. 4:28; Isa. 25: 1; Ezek. 12:25; Dan. 9: 4; Mic. 7:20; Luc. 18: 7,8; ​​Rom. 3: 4; 15: 8; 1 Cor. 1: 9; 10:13; 2 Cor. 1:20; 1 Thess. 5:24; 2 Thess. 3: 3; 2 Tim. 2:13; Heb. 6:18; 10:23; 1 Pet. 4:19; Rev. 15: 3.)
(d) Mercy. God is merciful. "God's mercy is divine goodness at work with respect to the miseries of his creatures, goodness that is moved in their behalf, providing their relief, and, in the case of unrepentant sinners, showing long-suffering patience" (Hodges). (Titus 3: 5; Lam. 3:22; Dan. 9: 9; Jer. 3:12; Ps. 32: 5; Isa. 49:13; 54: 7.) One of the most beautiful descriptions of God's mercy is found in Psalm 103: 8-18. His knowledge of mercy becomes the basis of hope (Ps. 130: 7) as well as trust (Ps. 52: 8). God's mercy was eloquently manifested in sending Christ into the world. (Luke 1:78.)
(e) Love. God is love. Love is the attribute of God by virtue of which he desires a personal relationship with those who have his image and, most especially, with those who have been sanctified in character, deeds similar to him. We note the description of God's love (Deut. 7: 8; Eph. 2: 4; Pt. 3:17; Isa. 49:15, 16; Rom. 8:39; Hos. 11: 4; Jer. 31: 3); we notice to whom it is manifested (John 3:16; 16:27; 17:23; Deut. 10:18); we notice how it was demonstrated (John 3:16; 1 John 3: 1; 4: 9, 10; Rom. 9: 11-13; Isa. 38:17; 43: 3, 4; 63: 9; Titus 3: 4 -7; Ephesians 2: 4, 5; Hos. 11: 4; Deut. 7:13; Rom. 5: 5).
(f) Kindness. God is good. God's goodness is the attribute by which he bestows life and other blessings on his creatures. (Ps. 25: 8; Nahum 1: 7; Ps. 145: 9; Rom. 2: 4; Matt. 5:45; Ps. 31:19; Acts 14:17; Ps. 68:10; 85: 5 .) Dr. Howard Agnew Johnson writes: Some years ago I was invited to lunch in a certain house.
The owner of the house asked me to pray. After asking for the blessing and expressing our gratitude for the gifts of God, he said with some frankness: "I really do not see the reason for this: for I have provided this meal myself." In response, we asked: "Did you never think that if the sowing and harvesting failed once in the whole land, half the people would die before the next harvest? And did you not also think that sowing and harvesting would fail in two years? successive across the planet, would all men die before the next harvest?
Evidently haunted, he admitted that he had never thought of such a possibility. So we suggested that he was very wrong to say that he was the one who provided that meal for us. He owed God his own life and the strength to earn money. God had given life to the grain and animal that we used as food, which he could never do. We remind him that he had been a co-worker with God, participating in divine laws to supply our needs. So we asked: "If someone gave you something, wouldn't you say" thank you "? And if the gifts were repeated two or three times a day, wouldn't you say" thank you "each time '?
With that he readily agreed. "So you understand why we say 'thank you' to God each time we receive his blessings." To this he exclaimed: "Ah! This is nothing more than good manners, not to mention being intelligently grateful!" For some people, the existence of evil and suffering presents an obstacle to the belief in the goodness of God. "Why did a God of love create a world full of suffering?" some ask. The following considerations may clarify the problem:
1) God is not responsible for evil. If a careless worker throws sand at a delicate machine, should the manufacturer be held responsible? God did everything good, but man damaged his work. Virtually all the suffering in the world is a consequence of man's deliberate disobedience.
2) Since God is Almighty, evil exists by his permission. We cannot always understand why he allows evil, because his ways are inscrutable. To the extremely curious he would say: "What do you have with that?
You follow me. "However, we can understand part of his ways - enough to know that he doesn't make a mistake. So wrote Stevenson, a notable author:" If I can see through my tiny myopic eyes with my tiny myopic eyes fraction of the universe, and still receive in my own destiny some evidence of a plan and some evidence of a dominant goodness, would I then be so foolish as to complain that I cannot understand everything? shouldn't I feel infinite and grateful surprise that, in a vast enterprise, I can understand something, however small it may be, and make this little one inspire my faith? "
3) God is so great that he can make evil cooperate for good. Let us remember how the evil of the brothers of Joseph, and of Pharaoh, and of Herod, and of those who rejected and crucified Christ, dominated. An ancient scholar rightly said: "Almighty God would in no way permit the existence of evil in his work if he were not so omnipotent and so good that even from evil he could do good." Many Christians have already emerged from the fires of suffering with a purified character and strengthened faith. Suffering has driven them into the bosom of God. Suffering was the currency that bought the character proved in the fire.
4) God formed the universe according to natural laws, and these laws imply the possibility of accidents. For example, if a person carelessly or deliberately falls over a precipice, that person will suffer the consequences of having violated the law of gravity. But, at the same time, we are satisfied with these laws, because otherwise the world would be in a state of confusion.
5) it is good to always remember that this is not the perfect state of affairs. God has in store another life and a future time when he will show the reason for all his treaties and actions. Since he operates according to "Celestial Official Time", we sometimes think he is late, but "very quickly" will do justice to his chosen ones. (Luke 18: 7, 8.) God is not to be judged until the curtain is drawn over the last scene of the great Drama of the Ages. Then we will see that "He did everything well"
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ivycrownedwitch · 9 hours ago
Text
Veles and the Otherworld
However, the figure of Charon (treated, of course, only figuratively, as a certain mythical motif of Indo-European origin), as a carrier of souls, deserves further attention. As mentioned above, the Slavic equivalent of Charon is Weles/Wołos. According to linguistic analyses, in Slavic beliefs, he was a god to whom all human souls went after death. His domain was located in a field (or meadow) far in the West, behind the water that separated the world of the living from the world of the dead (Nawia)
We know very little about the Slavic land of the dead. I have already mentioned that the words nav/nawie, known from textual accounts, referred to dead people or their ghosts and occasionally (in later times) malevolent spirits. The late medieval textual accounts from the Czech area confirm that Navia was the name of the land of the dead among the Western Slavs. ‘To go to Navia’ meant to die and ‘to prepare someone for Nav’, meant to kill 
According to Andrzej Szyjewski, the Slavs ‘originally did not distinguish Heaven from Hell, there was only one “otherworld” which surrounded “our world”, known as Wyraj, Raj, Irij. It was located somewhere behind the waters (especially the Milky Way) in the form of an abyss which pulled one inside by means of a vortex’. One theory that seeks to explain the etymology of the word Wyraj/Raj derives it from the Slavic linguistic roots and associates it with the pre-Slavic *rajь (to swim) and *gajь explaining it as a ‘ritualised part of earthly space, separated by water, a place where the souls reside’.
[...]
In the studies on Slavic eschatology, the Otherworld is sometimes located within a mythical pasture, which is also attributed an Indo-European genesis (Łuczyński 2012: 173). ‘Due to the undefined nature of its condition and the inability to distinguish the green colour, the pasture becomes a place of pulsating, invisible life, but at the same time represents a pre-cosmic void and land of the dead, in which the category of time is absent. The pasture, therefore, is a representation of a land that is no longer earthly, completely divine nor infernal. It is an Otherworld, a place between and at the border, through which it is possible to communicate with the sacred’ 
Imagining the Otherworld as a ‘divine pasture’ may also be reflected in the symbolic (in a structuralist sense) meaning of cattle and its attributes – fur and hair – in European folklore and prehistoric funerary practices it is a derivative of the ‘basic myth’. This leads us once again to considering the notion of funerary gifts and the frequent associations of spindle-whorls with the cultic and ritual role of animal fur and weaving (Kowalski 1988: 124; Kajkowski, Szczepanik 2014). These aspects are also closely related to the chthonic god Weles.
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